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Aristotle

Logic

Many thousands of ideas there are which cannot be translated into popular phras­e­o­log­y.

― J. J. Rosseau, The Social Contract

Topics Resources
  1. Statements and their Relationships
    1. Statements
      1. The Law of the Excluded Middle
      2. The Law of Identity
      3. The Law of Noncontradiction
    2. Self-Supporting Statements
      1. Self-Reports
      2. Tautologies
      3. Self-Contradictions
      4. Definitions
    3. Supported Statements
    4. Relationships between Statements
      1. Consistency
      2. Implication
      3. Logical Equivalence
      4. Independence
    5. Consistency and Disagreement
      1. Real Disagreements
      2. Apparent Disagreements
      3. Verbal Disagreement
    6. Standard Categorical Statements
      1. Universal Affirmative: All S are P.
      2. Universal Negative: No S are P.
      3. Particular Affirmative: Some S are P.
      4. Particular Negative: Some S are not P.
    7. The Square of Opposition
      1. Contradiction
      2. Contrariety
      3. Subcontrariety
      4. Subimplication
      5. Superimplication
  2. Syllogisms and Validity
    1. Arguments
    2. Truth and Validity
    3. The Syllogism
    4. Mood of Syllogisms
    5. Figure of Syllogisms
    6. Testing Syllogisms by Counter-Example
    7. Distributed Terms
    8. Testing Syllogisms by Rules
      1. Fallacy of the Undistributed Middle
      2. Fallacy of the Illicit Major
      3. Fallacy of the Illicit Minor
      4. Fallacy of Two Negative Premises
      5. Fallacy of a Negative Premise and an Affirmative Conclusion
      6. Fallacy of Two Affirmative Premises and a Negative Conclusion
  3. Arguments in Normal English
    1. Immediate Inferences
      1. Converse
      2. Obverse
      3. Contrapositive
    2. Translating Ordinary Statements
      1. Singular Statements
      2. Indefinite Statements
      3. Hypothetical Statements
      4. Parameters
      5. Exclusives
    3. Enthymemes
    4. Hypothetical Syllogisms
  4. Informal Fallacies
    1. Ipse dixit
    2. Ad populum
    3. Ad baculum
    4. Ad hominem
    5. Bulverism
    6. Tu quoque
    7. Ad ignorantium
    8. Chronological Snobbery
    9. Fallacies of Ambiguity
      1. Equivocation
      2. Accent
      3. Amphiboly
      4. Composition
      5. Division
    10. Fallacies of Form
      1. Petitio Principii
      2. Post hoc ergo propter hoc
      3. Either/Or
      4. Complex Question
      5. Apriorism
    11. Detecting Fallacies