# What is Known

## Necessary Assumptions

• The laws of nature are constant and con­sis­tent.
• Our observations of reality closely ap­prox­i­mate the actuality.

## Observables

• All ef­fects have causes.
• An object cannot be ac­cel­er­ated un­less act­ed upon by an out­side force (F=ma). In other words, an object’s ve­lo­ci­ty can only be altered by some external action. (This is a specific case of “cause and ef­fect.”)
• Space/Three Dimensions
• Time
• Motion/Velocity
• Matter/Substance
• Light/Electromagnetism
• Every action has an equal and op­po­site re­ac­tion.
• Energy is conserved.
• Mass is conserved.
• Momentum is conserved.

## Problem Questions

• What force or exchange of mo­mentum ac­cel­er­ates light when it exits a denser me­di­um?
• Kinetically speaking, denser me­di­a are characterized by less “en­er­gy” or mo­mentum, so in a ki­ne­tic model of light it can be sup­pos­ed that the light stuff is fre­er to move and be jostled about by the higher KE me­di­a it is “en­ter­ing”. How­ev­er these as­sump­tions, and the premise that light is mo­v­ing faster in one me­di­um than the other, are only ev­i­den­ced by the angular refraction/reflection dif­fer­ence, not by actual ve­lo­ci­ty mea­sure­ments. There are ge­o­met­ric reasons why the vectors of light would change direction be­tween two me­di­a which have no­thing to do with light actually mo­v­ing across space. This also ap­plies to the sup­pos­ed “slowing” of light through a Bose-Einstein con­den­sate.